dysgraphia are both learning differences. Dyslexia primarily affects reading. Dysgraphia mainly affects writing. While they’re different issues, the two are easy to confuse. They share symptoms and often occur together. This simple table can help you tell them apart.
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What is it?
An issue that involves difficulty with the physical act of writing. Kids may also find it hard to organize and express their thoughts and ideas in written form.
An issue that involves difficulty with reading. It can also affect writing, spelling and speaking. Kids may find it hard to isolate sounds, match sounds to letters or blend sounds into words.
Signs you may notice
Slow, labored writing
Mixing print and cursive letters
Spacing letters and words oddly
Poor spelling and grammar
Difficulty gripping a pencil
Run-on sentences and lack of paragraph breaks
Trouble organizing information when writing
Struggling with reading
Trouble sounding out words
Difficulty memorizing sight words
Avoiding reading aloud
Poor spelling and grammar
Not understanding what he’s read
Confusing the order of letters
Trouble following a sequence of directions
Difficulty organizing thoughts when speaking
Possible emotional and social impact
Messy written work that’s full of mistakes may lead kids to hear they’re “lazy” or “sloppy.” Confusion or frustration at school can make them anxious. They may avoid taking risks and may have low self-esteem.
Not meeting expectations can make kids feel inadequate. Missing verbal jokes, sarcasm and subtle meaning in language can affect them socially. So can struggling to come up with the right word or timely answer to a question.
What can help
Occupational therapy to build fine motor skills and dexterity
Having kids take a break before proofreading their work
A checklist for editing their work—spelling, neatness, grammar, syntax, clear progression of ideas, etc.
Specific instruction on identifying sounds, understanding how letters represent sounds in speech and decoding words
Specialized instruction, either one-on-one or in a small group
A reading program that focuses on using all the senses to learn (a number of programs use a multisensory approach)
Extended time on tests that involve writing
Access to the teacher’s lesson notes
Sentence starters showing how to begin a written response
Being able to respond in other ways besides writing
Breaking writing assignments into steps
The use of a word processor in school
Instruction in keyboarding skills
Extra time for reading and writing
Access to the teacher’s notes from the lesson to reduce the amount of note-taking
Books on tape
What you can do at home
Work on keyboarding skills.
Use speech-to-text tools that allow your child’s speech to be translated to text.
Try a handwriting program such as Handwriting Without Tears.
Work on correct letter formation using techniques that don’t require writing, like finger writing in the air or in shaving cream.
Read aloud so your child hears stories above his reading level.
Encourage your child to listen to audiobooks.
Help your child use spellcheck programs designed for people with dyslexia.
Use speech-to-text tools.
For younger kids, recite nursery rhymes and sing memory songs.
If your child is struggling with reading or writing, it can be difficult to know exactly what the problem is.
Talking to your child’s teacher about what she has observed is a good starting point. Together you can develop a plan. There are lots of ways to help kids with reading and writing issues succeed in school.