The Batman Effect: What My Research Shows About Pretend Play and Executive Functioning

By Stephanie M. Carlson, PhD on May 30, 2016

“Batman never gets frustrated.”

That’s a key insight we got from our research on executive functioning and pretend play. And it came from a 4-year-old in my research lab. Let me explain.

Executive functioning is a set of brain skills. These skills allow us to manage our thoughts, actions and emotions. They include things like:

We know kids with executive functioning issues and ADHD often struggle in school. Even mild executive functioning issues can prevent kids from reaching their full potential.

I’ve devoted my life to studying executive functioning and finding ways to help young kids strengthen these skills. One big question my colleagues and I have asked is, how do kids with strong executive functioning skills put them to use? What are they doing to delay gratification, persist at tasks and stay focused?

There’s a famous study called the Marshmallow Test that helped answer some of these questions. In the experiment, 4-year-olds got an extra marshmallow if they were able to wait for it. Some kids could wait up to 15 minutes.

The kids who got the extra marshmallow were using specific strategies to help them wait. One of the strategies that stood out was pretending or “make believe.” For instance, to help himself wait, a child might pretend to “feed” treats to an imaginary friend.

That got my colleagues and me thinking.

Young children are already experts at pretend role-play. They spend as much as two-thirds of their waking hours doing it. We wondered—what if we asked kids to pretend while doing a “serious” activity? What if it were a difficult activity that challenges their executive functioning skills?

To answer this question, we set up an experiment with 4-year-olds.

In the experiment, we put a toy in a glass box. Then we gave the kids a set of keys to unlock the box to play with the toy. The trick was that none of the keys worked. I know that sounds a little mean, but we were trying to understand how kids can improve their executive functioning skills.

We wanted to see how long the kids would keep trying to open the box. To help them, we offered them a few different strategies to use—and one was to pretend they were Batman. We even gave them a Batman cape. (They could also choose to be Dora the Explorer.)

You can see a sample of the experiment in the video below.

What my colleagues and I found was eye-opening.

Kids who pretended were more flexible thinkers than those who didn’t pretend. They spent more time trying to open the box. They tried more keys. They were calmer.

A child who “made believe” he was Batman acted as if he were a year older in terms of executive functioning skills. As one of the 4-year-olds in our research wisely explained, “Batman never gets frustrated.”

Why does pretending help kids with tough tasks?

We think it’s because pretending puts “psychological distance” between a child and the task at hand. Pretending helps a child step back from a problem and think about it from multiple angles. It helps him see different options for finding a solution.

Pretending also uses the same brain networks as real behavior. So if a child practices using pretend play, it’s more likely he’ll use those same brain networks in real situations. It’s similar to the advice “fake it till you make it.” Imagining you’re someone more competent and confident can help children—and even adults—act as if they are more competent and confident.

Some parents may think of “make believe” as being the opposite of self-control—like letting go. But when your child pretends or plays “make believe,” he’s actually using and building key executive functioning skills.

So the next time your child is running around with a Batman cape, take note. He’s doing something very important. You may even want to do some pretend play with him.

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    About the author

    About the author

    Stephanie M. Carlson, PhD is a professor and director of research at the Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.