Some kids have trouble recognizing individual letters or the group of letters that make their names. They may confuse letters that look similar, like b and d, or mix up uppercase and lowercase letters.
Often these challenges are part of typical development. Or it may be that a child needs to be exposed to the alphabet more. But for some kids, not knowing the alphabet could be a sign of a deeper issue with language.
Some kids learn and think differently, and those differences can cause challenges with language. This includes a common learning difference called dyslexia.
signs of dyslexia at different ages