Dyslexia and dysgraphia are both learning issues. Dyslexia primarily affects reading. Dysgraphia mainly affects writing. While they’re different issues, the two are easy to confuse. They share symptoms and often occur together. This simple table can help you tell them apart.
|What is it?
An issue that involves difficulty with the physical act of writing. Kids may also find it hard to organize and express their thoughts and ideas in written form.
An issue that involves difficulty with reading. It can also affect writing, spelling and speaking. Kids may find it hard to isolate sounds, match sounds to letters or blend sounds into words.
|Signs you may notice
- Illegible handwriting
- Slow, labored writing
- Mixing print and cursive letters
- Spacing letters and words oddly
- Poor spelling and grammar
- Difficulty gripping a pencil
- Incorrect punctuation
- Run-on sentences and lack of paragraph breaks
- Trouble organizing information when writing
- Struggling with reading
- Trouble sounding out words
- Difficulty memorizing sight words
- Avoiding reading aloud
- Poor spelling and grammar
- Not understanding what he’s read
- Confusing the order of letters
- Trouble following a sequence of directions
- Difficulty organizing thoughts when speaking
|Possible emotional and social impact
Messy written work that’s full of mistakes may lead kids to hear they’re “lazy” or “sloppy.” Confusion or frustration at school can make them anxious. They may avoid taking risks and may have low self-esteem.
Not meeting expectations can make kids feel inadequate. Missing verbal jokes, sarcasm and subtle meaning in language can affect them socially. So can struggling to come up with the right word or timely answer to a question.
|What can help
- Occupational therapy to build fine motor skills and dexterity
- Having kids take a break before proofreading their work
- A checklist for editing their work—spelling, neatness, grammar, syntax, clear progression of ideas, etc.
- Using graphic organizers
- Specific instruction on identifying sounds, understanding how letters represent sounds in speech and decoding words
- Specialized instruction, either one-on-one or in a small group
- A reading program that focuses on using all the senses to learn (a number of programs use a multisensory approach)
- Extended time on tests that involve writing
- Access to the teacher’s lesson notes
- Sentence starters showing how to begin a written response
- Being able to respond in other ways besides writing
- Breaking writing assignments into steps
- The use of a word processor in school
- Instruction in keyboarding skills
- Extra time for reading and writing
- Access to the teacher’s notes from the lesson to reduce the amount of note-taking
- Simplified directions
- Books on tape
- Shortened assignments
|What you can do at home
- Work on keyboarding skills.
- Use speech-to-text tools that allow your child’s speech to be translated to text.
- Try a handwriting program such as Handwriting Without Tears.
- Work on correct letter formation using techniques that don’t require writing, like finger writing in the air or in shaving cream.
- Read aloud so your child hears stories above his reading level.
- Encourage your child to listen to audiobooks.
- Help your child use spell-check programs designed for people with dyslexia.
- Use speech-to-text tools.
- For younger kids, recite nursery rhymes and sing memory songs.
If your child is struggling with reading or writing, it can be difficult to know exactly what the problem is. Talking to your child’s teacher about what she has observed is a good starting point. Together you can develop a plan. There are lots of ways to help kids with reading and writing issues succeed in school.