ADHD is a common condition that makes it hard to focus, keep still, and think before acting. Some people with ADHD mainly have trouble with focus. (This is also known as ADD.) ADHD can also impact other skills, including managing emotions.
It’s not clear exactly how many people in the United States have ADHD. But estimates are between 5 and 11 percent.
People with ADHD have trouble with a group of key skills known as executive function. And that creates challenges in many areas of life, from school to work to everyday living. For example, people with ADHD often struggle to get organized, follow directions, and manage their emotions.
ADHD doesn’t just go away as people get older. Most of the time, hyperactivity and impulsivity lessen or disappear by the teen years or a little longer. But trouble with focus usually continues. Some people aren’t diagnosed with ADHD until after high school or as adults.
No matter when people are diagnosed with ADHD, there are treatments that can make symptoms more manageable. And there are supports that can make things easier at school and at work.
The stereotype of kids with ADHD is that they’re always in motion, they’re impulsive and hyperactive, and that they act out at home and at school. But some people with ADHD never have those symptoms. They only struggle with focus. ADD is one name for this type of ADHD.
People with ADHD have trouble with executive function, which is the “management system” of the brain. Because of that, people with ADHD often struggle with:
Getting and staying organized
Paying attention and remembering things
Shifting focus from one thing to another
Getting started on and finishing tasks
Thinking before saying or doing things
There’s one confusing sign of ADHD. People who have trouble focusing most of the time can often “hyperfocus” on tasks or activities they find really interesting.
For instance, a child might focus for hours while doing a craft project but drift off five minutes after starting homework. Or an adult may hyperfocus on video games or a TV show, to the point that they don’t hear their name being called.
Signs of ADHD can pop up at any age. Kids can show signs as young as preschool. But many don’t show signs until later on, as school gets harder and they have more to juggle. Some people don’t realize that what they experience is ADHD until they’re in college or working.
There’s been a lot of research in the last few years pointing to possible causes of ADHD. Brain imaging studies have found differences and similarities in people with and without ADHD.
The research shows that brain development is very similar. But the areas involved in executive function take longer to develop in people with ADHD. That’s why kids with ADHD may act one to three years younger than other kids their age. Research also shows some differences in how the brain functions.
These differences have nothing to do with intelligence. People with ADHD are just as smart as people who don’t have it.
Researchers are also looking at the role of genetics. ADHD tends to run in families. A child with ADHD has a one in four chance of having at least one parent who has it. And there’s a strong likelihood that another close family member also has ADHD.
Behavior therapy: This type of therapy involves creating a rewards system for changing a child’s behavior. It’s different from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps people look at their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, and make positive changes. CBT may be helpful to some people with ADHD, but it’s not a treatment for ADHD.
Alternative treatments: There’s no shortage of companies that claim to have an all-natural fix to ADHD. Most have no evidence to back up their claims. Learn more about alternative treatments for ADHD.
ADHD doesn’t go away. But with the right treatments and supports in school, at home, and at work, people with ADHD can thrive.